Saturday, June 27, 2020

What Is Human Genetic Engineering - Free Essay Example

Human Genetic Engineering   Human Genetic Engineering is a very technical process that requires precision and perfection. So what is Human Genetic Engineering?   Ã‚   Human Genetic Engineering is the process of altering the DNA in an organisms genome (What is Genetic Engineering, par. 1). Linda Tagliaferro says in her book Genetic Engineering: Progress or Peril? that Genetic Engineering is called gene slicing or gene cloning (a gene is a unit of heredity that is transferred from a parent to offspring and is held to determine some characteristic of the offspring). She also says, by changing the genes of an organism, scientists can give the organism and its descendants different traits. This means that they can create different traits to the ideal look of how they want it. Genetic Engineering by means of other sources is defined as changing at least one base pair and pretty much getting rid of DNA or making another copy of a gene. Like anything in this world, Human Genetic Engineering has two sides of it. Bad and good. This means it can have a lot of faults and a lot of benefits.   Ã‚   When I think about Human Genetic Engineering, the first thought that comes to my head is making humans. Even though thats not really accurate, it is still at some level correct. Human Genetic Engineering is not making humans but it is modifying them. It can remove diseases from your body, and it can cure cancer (hasnt been done yet but scientists are working on it). Human Genetic Engineering has never been about fixing the world but solving small problems that can help the world. I do not necessarily agree with Human Genetic Engineering, but I do think that some of the things scientists are hoping to do will help out the world a bit. For one, I believe that there are more dangers than benefits. Stephen Hawkings said with Genetic Engineering, we will be able to increase the complexity of our DNA, and improve the human race. But it will be a slow process, because one will have to wait about 18 years to see the effect of changes to the genetic code. It is almost a waste of time pretty much because normally you get the Genetic Engineering done to relieve diseases or cancer. But by then it will have spread throughout your body and youll most likely be dead already. Another thing is there is the possibility something could go terribly wrong.   Ã‚  Ã‚   When I say something could go wrong, what I mean is that this process isnt secure yet and needs a bit more research. If something needs more experience and research, its not wise to go testing it out on human lives. The main thing that worries me is that the cells can mutate causing a mutation of some kind. Mutations can lead to deformities of the skin, brain, organs, and even the way the body works. It can possibly make someone go handicapped if possible (hasnt been tested yet, but honestly lets keep it that way). On the other hand, Human Genetic Engineering can do good as well. The types of diseases it can cure vary. Some diseases it can cure are HIV, forms of genetic blindness, hypercholesterolemia, Sickle-cell anemia, and Hemophilia.   Ã‚   HIV, also known as human immunodeficiency virus, is just one of the diseases Human Genetic Engineering can supposedly cure. It is a sexually transmitted disease that can last for years. This condition cannot be cured, but scientists are trying to use Genetic Engineering to hopefully cure the disease for good. HIV is rare only affecting 200,000 people a year in the entire world. Thats very little considering there are billions of people on this earth. The way they are trying to cure this is by getting physicians to edit a patients immune cells to delete the CCR5 gene, making the resistance to HIV carried by the 1% of the US population lacking functional copies of this gene (Eric S. Lander).   Ã‚  Ã‚   Another disease Human Genetic Engineering can probably cure is some forms of genetic blindness. One form of this blindness is called Leber congenital amaurosis. LCA begins in the infant ages and slowly progresses into adulthood. People who have this disease will be completely blind by the time of adulthood. There are no treatments available for this disease which is awful because 1 in 80,000 people are affected by this disease. With Human Genetic Engineering there has been a new gene therapy that has allowed some of the people with this disease to be able to see and navigate in a maze with little light. I have hope that this new gene therapy will help loads of people with LCA.   Ã‚  Ã‚   Hypercholesterolemia is a condition where someone has really high cholesterol in their blood. It is very common, more than 3 million cases every year. Can be treatable but not cured. It can last years and can be, in some cases, lifelong. Cholesterol can increase the risk of heart disease and heart disease is the number one leading death in America. Eric S. Lander believes that editing the liver cells can fix the inherited condition. This may be a risky process but everything you do has its risks.   Ã‚  Ã‚   Sickle-cell anemia, also called sickle-cell disease, is when your red   blood cells are misshapen and they start to break down.   People who have sickle-cell anemia have unnatural hemoglobin. Hemoglobin is a protein in red blood cells that takes oxygen all over the body. This protein is one of the most important proteins in your blood. This disease is rare and cannot be cured. It can be very painful and can have external and permanent damage to the organs. Lander believes that editing blood stem cells could cure this disease.   Ã‚  Ã‚   One more is Hemophilia. Hemophilia is another blood disorder where the blood is unable to clot and can cause large amounts of severe bleeding. It is thankfully rare but still effects less than 200,000 a year. This is also an incurable condition. Lander again says that this disease can possibly be cured by editing the blood stem cells. I really hope that scientists figure out how to cure Hemophilia because it is a very serious condition that I would hate having. Fun fact: Alexei Nikolaevich, Tsarevich of Russia (from The Royal Diaries: Anastasia, the Last Grand Duchess), had Hemophilia.   Ã‚  Ã‚   Human Genetic Engineering can possibly also get rid of illnesses in unborn and young children. Doctors can tell if your baby has any illnesses or diseases before they are even out of the womb. Two main diseases they scan spot is Sickle-cell amnesia and Down Syndrome. As we already discussed what sickle-cell amnesia is, Down Syndrome is far worse a condition. Down syndrome is a genetic disorder caused when unnatural cell division comes up in full or partial copies of chromosome 21. This extra genetic material causes the developmental and physical changes and features of Down syndrome. It has no cure so far but with Genetic Engineering, all that could change. If you genetically modify the baby before it is born, it could have no health problems and could be perfectly healthy. As awesome as that sounds, it still worries me because it could be a very dangerous process that could possibly kill the baby. If someone is willing to take that chance, then go ahead. My personal tho ught is that I would not go through with the decision to genetically modify my child. Even if it was something people do all the time, and worked, I would still say no to genetic modification to a child.   Ã‚  Ã‚   Another thing Human Genetic Engineering can possibly do is give humans the potential to live longer. Scientists are saying that with Human Genetic Engineering they can make the average life span for humans from 79 to a much older age. They are hoping to get the average age up to 85 or older. With genetic engineering, we could reverse some of the reasons for the bodys natural decline on a cellular level, drastically improving both the life span of humans and the quality of life later on.   Ã‚  Ã‚   Now right now Human Genetic Engineering probably sounds awesome, right? Wrong. Human Genetic Engineering is as bad as it is good. When Genetic Engineering first became possible, most of the peoples first thoughts were if it was right or not. Many religions are against Human Genetic Engineering. One of these religions is Christianity. For those who know nothing about Christianity, it is a religion with one God in three different forms: the Holy Spirit, the Son, and the Father. The Father sent the Son to die for our sins and the Son left us the Holy Spirit. The Holy Spirit is everywhere and anytime someone is saved the Holy Spirit then comes into them and keeps them from being the way they used to be. They will still sin but be conscious about it. Now, the Father created the heavens and the earth, so therefore he creates the people and the plants and the animals. With Human Genetic Engineering, its pretty much altering the DNA that God created. So, it would be like we are playing God in a sense.   Ã‚  Ã‚   Another thing that is negative about Human Genetic Engineering is that if they cured all diseases, then death wouldnt be as frequent and therefore overpopulating the planet. Even with these diseases the earth is overpopulated so imagine the world without them. More than 3 million people die a year from illnesses. We would have an extra 3 million people in the world. Theres already billions of people and thats already more than we need, so 3 million extra would be way too many people. Conserve Energy Future says From solving these problems, it can create more problems down the road that we cannot predict.   Ã‚  Ã‚   Human Genetic Engineering can also cause defects in Genetics. Scientists do not know the full extent of the human body. There are probably a bunch of things scientists dont know about the human body yet, so if they change the cellular structure of something to cure an illness, what happens if they introduce something else far more dangerous? Scientists cannot predict everything that could go wrong.   Ã‚  Ã‚   Another thing is Human Genetic Engineering can limit genetic diversity. Most gene therapies are only available for the rich. Human Genetic Engineering would most likely only be given to the rich so the rich would live longer and the people who are not and that do the small but important jobs will not get to live longer. Rich people dont want to do the small jobs that keep this world going like plumbers, janitors, crossing guards, etc. Those people who have those jobs will eventually die out while all the rich and genetically modified people will be left.   Ã‚  Ã‚   Conserve Energy Future says that people can take Human Genetic Engineering too far. There are many scientists that want to use Genetic Engineering for good, like curing diseases and illnesses, but there are also scientists that want to use it to make designer babies, children whose hair color, eye color, height and intelligence is determined by us, and my least favorite is engineering the sex of the baby. I believe that if we engineer the sex of a baby then it will give the baby health problems and their emotional state will not be happy but depressed. I believe depression will increase more than it already has. Humans are supposed to be mysterious creatures. People shouldnt be able to even get close enough in technology to engineer human genders. Transgenders are already a step too far. Fun fact: (not really fun but a side fact) In China, it is much more preferable to have a boy. Girls are not allowed to take over the family business, so they need a boy in every family to take over the business after the eldest man dies. With Human Genetic Engineering people in China will find a way to genetically engineer the sex of of their babies to be a boy.   Ã‚  Ã‚   The problems with Genetic Engineering going too far are a present worry in a world in which genetic engineering is progressing further and further every day. To some this sound amazing and a vast improvement. To others (like myself), it does not. My note for you is to research and build your own opinions.

Monday, May 18, 2020

The Uniform Crime Report And National Crime Victimization...

Kelly Ward/ 900710473 Introduction to Criminology / Course ID 55952 May 26, 2015 Assignment 1 1. Compare the Uniform Crime Report to the National Crime Victimization Survey. What federal bureau(s) put out each, and how do the data we find in them differ? The Uniform Crime report is compiled by the FBI. The idea of recording this information was conceived in 1929 and in 1930 the FBI was tasked with this duty to gather, catalogue, and archive. The Uniform Crime Report is a compilation of crime information gathered from various law enforcement agencies. â€Å"Currently the FBI offers four annual publications, Crime in the United States, National Incident-Based Reporting System, Law Enforcement Officers Killed and Assaulted, and Hate Crime Statistics . â€Å"This data is received from over 18,000 city, university/college, county, state, tribal, and federal law enforcement agencies voluntarily participating in the program. The crime data are submitted either through a state UCR Program or directly to the FBI’s UCR Program.† â€Å"(FBI. FBI, 9 May 2012. Web. 27 May 2015.) While this is a huge undertaking and serves a purpose the question remains, how accurate are these statistics? My conclusion from the readings is that there are large gaps with respect to various issues. The first being that these are the crimes that we know have been committed because the perpetrator was caught or there was evidence that a crime had been committed that law enforcement officials were aware of. ThereShow MoreRelatedThe Uniform Crime Report And The National Crime Victimization Survey1569 Words   |  7 Pagesarguments over crime statistics. The Uniform Crime Report (UCR), Self-Report Surveys (SRS), and the National Crime Victimizati on Survey (NCVS) are three methods in which the government collects data, and monitors criminal activity in the United States. The Uniform Crime Reports, Self-Report Surveys, and the National Crime Victimization Survey each have both positive and negative attributes that have influenced different aspects of society. â€Å"The Uniform Crime Reports (UCR) provides official crime totals forRead MoreDifferences in Crime Statistics in the Uniform Crime Reports versus the National Crime Victimization Survey743 Words   |  3 Pages Arguments over crime statistics have been raging ever since governments began counting criminal activity. In 1930 the United States congress authorized the attorney general of the United States to survey crime in America. The Federal Bureau of Investigation was chosen to implement the program. (Schmalleger p.38) The Uniform Crime Reports is the survey taken by the FBI. This measure of crime in America depends on reports to the police by victims of crimes. The UCR Program was developed byRead MoreMeasuring Crime Essay914 Words   |  4 Pages Measuring Crime Crime measurement and statistics for police departments are very important when it comes to money allotment, staffing needs or termination and it is also used to determine the effectiveness of new laws and programs. There are three tools used to measure major crime in the United States: Uniform Crime Reports, National Crime Victimization Survey and the National Incident Based Reporting System- which is currently being tested to replace the Uniform Crime Reports. Although thereRead MoreMeasuring Crime1070 Words   |  5 PagesMeasuring Crime in the United States Kyra Pettit CJA/204 August 5, 2013 Dr. Wafeeq Sabir Measuring Crime in the United States In the following paper, these criminal justice students will address the three major points of crime measurement in the United States. Even though there may be changes of crime statistics, but not changes in the crime rate; that is because crime can be measured in numerous ways. Two measuring systems being the National Crime Victimization Survey (NCVS) and Uniform CrimeRead More3 Types of Crime Measurement1016 Words   |  5 Pagesof measurement. Uniform Crime Reports, victimization surveys and self report studies all have similar purposes of concluding the trends in different crimes and suggesting the attention of problematic issues. Although, theses types of crime measurement all have the same aim, results vary tremendously between them. Each type of measurement is conducted by a different group that hold their own techniques of gathering information. In the United States, the Uniform Crime Report has been the mostRead MoreVictim Advocacy1496 Words   |  6 PagesVictim Advocacy Anthony D. Rios AIU Online Abstract Date rape is a serious offense and should be not taken lightly. The National Crime Victimization Survey and the Uniform Crime Reporting provides statistics on this offense. There are also strengths and weaknesses in both tools, but they are both valuable tools. To understand date rape, it is important to know the definition, and how date rape is distinguished between stranger rape, statutory rape, and spousal rape. It’s also importantRead MoreThe Crime Of Uniform Crime1427 Words   |  6 Pages Uniform Crime Report for 2014 states that there are four offenses in the Violent Crime category, they include Murder, Forcible Rape, Robbery and Aggravated Assault. They only collect their data from Law Enforcement Agencies from their arrest reports. According to The Uniform Crime Report, Property Crime includes these four offenses, Burglary, Larceny/ Theft, Motor Vehicle Theft and Arson. The Uniform Crime Report reported that there were 402,470 violent crime arrests in 2014 compared to 1,275,315Read MoreCrime Rates in America1161 Words   |  5 PagesCrime Rates In America Elliot H. Maysonet CJA/204 08 April 2013 Prof. Ron Alter Crime Rates In America In society’s day and age, Americans believe that crime has been steadily increasing. This perspective is based on information provided to the public by criminologist. Our society relies heavily on statistical data to measure criminality and the effectiveness of the laws that govern society. This data is collected and formulated to create what is known as national crime reports. These reportsRead MoreInvestigation Of The Criminal Justice Field1261 Words   |  6 Pagesand where crimes are happening and try to provide a solution to stopping them. However, people bring into question the accuracy and usefulness of crime statistics as they merely reflect the views of the policy makers. Two sources that collect and publish crime data and statistics are the Uniform Crime Reporting (UCR) program, and the National Crime Victim Survey (NCVS). The Uniform Crime Reporting program was created in 1930 when Congress saw the need to begin collecting statistics on crime in theRead MoreShould Police Officers Be Use Racial Profiling?999 Words   |  4 Pagesthe most crimes. There are three basic methods to measure criminal behavior. These include: Uniform Reporting of Crime, Self- Report and National Crime Victimization Survey. Uniform Reporting of Crime (URC) is a nationwide, cooperative statistical effort of more than 18,000 voluntarily individuals reporting data on crimes (â€Å"Federal Bureau of Investigation†1). Self-report surveys measure crime by distributing questionnaires to a sample of people, asking if they have committed any crimes during a

Wednesday, May 6, 2020

Essay on Diabetes - 898 Words

Diabetes Diabetes is a chronic metabolic disorder that occurs when the body is unable to produce or respond to insulin, a hormone that allows blood glucose to enter the cells of the body and generate the bodys energy (Ebony, 115). Diabetes is a disease that affects approximately 3% of the world population. In American alone, 10.3 million people report having diabetes, while an estimated 10 million more individuals may have undiagnosed diabetes (Morwessel, 540). The gene for diabetes is located in the HLA region on chromosome 6, and the most probable organization of the responsible gene is on a 19-kb region of INS-IGF2, which affects HLA-DR4 IDDM susceptibility. Diabetes Mellitus, was first diagnosed in the year 1000 BC, by the†¦show more content†¦The genetics causes of Type I and Type II diabetes stem from elevated blood glucose levels. Type I diabetes is an autoimmune disease characterized by b -cell destruction, usually leading to an absolute insulin deficiency (Dahlquist 5). Type II diabetes extends from primarily insulin resistance with relative insulin deficiency to primarily defective insulin secretion with insulin resistance. Much research has been done on determining the genes that are responsible for diabetes mellitus. Type I diabetes is known as a complex trait, because the mutations in several genes contribute to it. IDDM1 on chromosome 6, IDDM2 on chromosome 11, and the gene for GCK, glucokinase, on chromosome 7, have all been reported as playing an integral part in the development of Type I diabetes (Dahlquist 5). The mechanisms behind these genes are not yet known at this time. In Type I diabetes, the bodys immune system mounts an immunological assault on its own insulin and the pancreatic cells that manufacture it (NCBI, 1999). There are two proposed mechanisms for Type I diabetes. The first deals with environmental factors that trigger the autoimmune process, usually in the childhood development stage. The second mechanism suggest that a superantigen reaction results in rapid destruction of pancreatic b cells, which eventually leads to the onset of the disorder (Morwessel 545). There are two hypo thesized forms of Type I diabetes: a B8Show MoreRelatedDiabetes : Diabetes And Diabetes3153 Words   |  13 PagesPeople all around the world might know someone with diabetes, but might have never realized how did they get diabetes, what will happen with them, what do they go through, what makes them change their lives, or what is there everyday basis when someone has diabetes? It may not be your problem, but to show respect and care for the one who may have diabetes can help them and benefit yourself to know more about it and have a better understanding of it. It can impact a person s personal life to knowRead MoreDiabetes : The Growth Of Knowledge On Diabetes1018 Words   |  5 PagesDiabetes The research focused on explaining the meaning of diabetes and how literary some concepts can be used to control the situation. Diabetes is a defect in the body that results from the inability to convert glucose to energy. In the medical terms, glucose is the primary source of energy that enables the body to execute its functions effectively. The types of foods that affect the blood sugars are called carbohydrates. We can find carbohydrates in foods such as potatoes, corn, fruit, rice andRead MoreDiabetes And Its Effects On Diabetes1408 Words   |  6 Pagesgo hand in hand with diabetes. Everyone who has diabetes goes through different events or problems each and every day. However, there is more than just one type of diabetes that corresponds with these things; there are two distinct types. It is unsure how Diabetes was discovered but now there are much simpler ways to detect if someone is diabetic. As time has gone on, it is greatly apparent that the technology and all that scien tists know about diabetes has changed. Diabetes is a disease in whichRead MoreDiabetes : Diabetes And Diabetes1433 Words   |  6 Pages Diabetes mellitus (sometimes called sugar diabetes) is a condition that occurs when the body can t use glucose (a type of sugar) normally. Glucose is the main source of energy for the body s cells. The levels of glucose in the blood are controlled by a hormone called insulin, which is made by the pancreas. Insulin helps glucose enter the cells. In diabetes, the pancreas does not make enough insulin (type 1 diabetes) or the body can t respond normally to the insulin that is made (type 2 diabetes)Read MoreDiabetes : Diabetes And Diabetes Essay1172 Words   |  5 Pages Diabetes refers to clinically and heterogenous group of disorders described by abnormal high levels blood glucose. Diabetes is ranked as 6th leading cause of death. It direct annual medical costs is approximately over $ 92 billion, and another $ 40 billion indirect cost. It affects approximately 18.2 million people in the USA (Arcangelo Peterson, 2013). Explain the differences between types of diabetes including type 1, type 2, gestational, and juvenile diabetes. There are three major classificationRead MoreDiabetes : Diabetes And Diabetes1193 Words   |  5 Pagesthe family has diabetes. Her husband, your grandfather, is at risk for diabetes. Your father has diabetes. Your mother is at risk for diabetes. Your half-sister on your father’s side of the family was recently tested for diabetes. What kind of future regarding diabetes does that leave you with? This may not be you, but this is me. This is my diabetic and at risk family. What is the difference between the types of diabetes? What are the possible problems I can have because of diabetes? How can I treatRead MoreDiabetes : Diabetes And Diabetes1371 Words   |  6 PagesDiabetes For my health project topic I chose Diabetes. One of my aunts has type one diabetes, and that is partially why I chose to do this topic. Diabetes is a group of metabolic diseases in which the person has high blood glucose (blood sugar) because of varying reasons. Some of these reasons include insulin production is inadequate or because the body’s cells don’t respond properly to insulin, or both. Insulin is a hormone produced in the pancreas that regulates the amount of glucose in theRead MoreDiabetes : Diabetes And Diabetes851 Words   |  4 Pages Diabetes comes in multiple forms: type 1, or diabetes insipidus; type 2, or diabetes mellitus; or gestational, which occurs during pregnancy and may be either type 1 or type 2. Diabetes is a metabolic disease where the person has high blood glucose. (Blood glucose is also know was blood sugar.) When the person has high blood sugar it’s either because the insulin result is insufficient, or the body’s cells don’t respond to the insulin like it should, or both can happen. There are different typesRead MoreDiabetes : Diabetes And Diabetes919 Words   |  4 PagesResistance: Diabetes Diabetes mellitus is most commonly known as diabetes. Diabetes is formally a Greek word that translates to, â€Å"the making of lots of urine with sugar in it or making sweet urine† Brawley. This disease is due to a metabolic dysfunction. Diabetes is caused due to the fact that insufficient insulin is being produced in the pancreas. Sometimes this disease can even be caused because the cells are not being responsive to the insulin being produced. Unfortunately diabetes is not justRead MoreDiabetes Is An Illness Of Diabetes2273 Words   |  10 Pages INTRODUCTION Diabetes is an illness that’s been raising for many years and yet there hasn’t been a cure found for it. Diabetes is diagnosed when you have too much glucose also known as sugar in your blood, where the pancreas isn’t able to make enough insulin to pass the sugar in use for energy to the different cells in your body. Glucose in the bloodstreams comes from the carbohydrate foods which are changed into sugar after we have eaten them or the glucose that’s been stored in the liver that

Effective Business Communication Skills

Question: Discuss about the Effective Business Communication Skills. Answer: Introduction This assignment is about developing effective business communication skills. Purpose of this assignment is to engage in a reflective practice using different types of diagnostic tools and feedback. These tools are like communication style questionnaires, Johari Window and Assertiveness questionnaires. These tools help me to analyze my own communication styles across different areas like non-verbal, active listening, assertiveness perception and verbal communication. In this assignment, the findings of these tools were provided along with two major communication issues identified that required development. Self-reflection on communication skills In order to analyze my own communication skills, I have used 5 diagnostics tools related with communication. They are such as Johari Window, EQ self assessment check list, Communications Style Questionnaire, Assertiveness Questionnairesand Quinn Management Test. Dragojevic and Giles (2014) stated that Johrai Window test can help me to find out the connection individual and others. After going through Johari Window test, I have analyzed that, I belong to open arena. I always try to gather adequate knowledge about people associate with me or living with me. I provide the Johari window Chart and graph below to demonstrate my communication skills. Figure 1: Chart for my Johari window analysis (Source: Created by author) Figure 2: Johrai window graph (Source: Created by author) I have marked my score on the top line of the graph for solicits Feedback. Then I have drawn vertical line downward. On the left line of the graph below, I have marked my score for willingness to self-disclose/ Gives Feedback. Then I have drawn a line across horizontally from left to right. I have copied my point values from the questionnaires and added up the total points for every column. I am providing my Johari Window score in the table below. Figure 3: My Johari Window Test Score (Source: Created by author) My Johari Window graph is the example of established team member. I achieved this with the help of the process of asking for and by receiving feedback. The unknown area is reduced with the help of self discovery or with the help of mutual enlightenment. I always strive to uncover my unknown areas with the help of self actualization in accordance with Maslows need of Hierarchy. I have also analyzed EQ self assessment check list to analyze my communication style in terms of self awareness, empathy, self-confidence, motivation, self-control and social competency. From this analysis, it has been found that I have scored relatively high in areas such as self-awareness (21), self confidence (21), empathy (21) and self control (25). However, I have scored relatively low in aspects such as social competency (17) and motivation (18). Active listening: I always try to provide my full attention on another person when I listen to him or her. For this reason, I am respected and like by others, even they dont agree with me. Assertiveness: I am clear about my values and goals. I express my views thoughtfully and honestly. In addition, I can effectively persuade others so that they can adopt my point of view without concerning them. Direct and indirect Communication: However, I have analyzed that I have some issues related with showing empathy. While interacting with people coming from another culture, I am not able to show my feeling appropriately due to cultural and language barriers. I have used another to tool named as self assessment assertiveness questionnaire. Amati and Hannawa (2014) stated that that this self assessment assertiveness questionnaire can a help a person to analyze a persons behavior or attitude towards others. From this analysis, I come to understand that I have high level of determination towards my work. I can take tough decisions in accordance to the demand of the condition. However, while taking decisions I prefer to take advice from others. I believe that sometimes others can provide better ideas that can help top get competitive advantage in the market place. I have also conducted another test named as Quinn Management Test. Amati and Hannawa (2014) stated that, this test can help me to understand my competences. This test helps to understand how particular things can be implemented in real life so that it can improve my communication capability. This teat helps me to understand my leadership style and managerial styles that I have adopted. I have come to understand the perceptive and opinions of other people can be highly valued by me. I always try to accomplish collective results by gathering others point of view. From this analysis, two major communication issues have been identified in my interaction process. They are such as cross-cultural communication issues and direct and indirect communication issues. Within the past 12 months, I had gone through two professional interactions. One is a face-to-face interview with a Japanese manager and another one is communicating with subordinates coming from different cultures. They are mentioned below: Cross-cultural communication issues After the one-to-one interview with the Japanese manager, I came to understand that I would face some issues while working in multinational organizations due to language barrier. In multinational organizations, various people come to work from different cultural background and different ethnic group (Ihator, 2015). As I belong to Australia, there is a high chance of facing communication problems while interacting with them. I fire that my body language and gesture of interaction might offend them. For instance, in Australia, organizations believe in lesser power distance compare to Japanese company. Japanese people believe in hierarchy within their organizations. Hence, it can affect my interaction with these people. For instance, in Australia we prefer to acknowledge our subordinates and colleagues by their name. However this gesture can offend people coming from other culture. In addition, they can have different perception about my point of view, which can create confusions. Hence , in order to work and survive in multinational and multicultural organizations, I have to enhance my cross-cultural communication skills. In order to do that, I have to take behavioral training and communication trainings. I have to learn different languages, read different books and newspapers to learn different cultures. Direct and indirect communication issues While working with multicultural teams, I had analyzed that I was facing communicational issues while interacting with my collages, which came from different cultures. In Australia, we believe in using more direct approach, while interacting with others. Amati and Hannawa (2014) stated that in direct approach, the meaning is seemingly obvious. However, people belong to other cultures such as Indian culture and Chinese culture; have the tendency to use more discrete approach to reveal their message or point of view. Using both Western and non-western culture can create confusion in the communication process. For instance, during the team meeting, I asked my team members which option is more efficient; option X or option Y. Some of my colleagues get offended due to this reason. They prefer more indirect approach of speaking. Hence, in order to develop effective communication within the team I have to learn indirect approach of communication. 3. Literature review Cross cultural communication Danziger (2013) stated that cross cultural communication is the study of how people belong to different cultures interact with each other. It has been found that cross cultural communication is imperative for an organization that has diverse workforce. Arnold and Boggs (2015) stated that cross cultural communication has become strategically significant for organizations due to growth of internet, technology and global business. This type of communication is essential in business as it helps to understand how people from different cultural background communicate and perceive word around them. Pekerti and Thomas (2015) mentioned that cross cultural communication deals with various business customs, beliefs and strategies of communication. It has been found that there are some major factors that affect cross cultural communication. They are such as nonverbal differences, high-context vs. low-context cultures and power distance. All these points have been discussed below: Nonverbal differences Neuliep (2014) stated that eye contact and gestures are two major areas of nonverbal communication that are utilized differently across cultures. Companies have to train their employees in appropriate way to handle non-verbal communications, so that it cannot offend other cultures. For example, American workers tend to wave their hands and use fingers to point out something. However, these types of gestures are considered rude in some cultures. For example, in Japan, a person should never use finer to point towards another person, as the gestures are considered rude in this country. Eye contact is also another type of nonverbal communication. Danziger (2013) stated that, in America, eye contact is considered as a positive thing and considered as a reflection of straightforwardness and honesty. However, Brannen et al., (2014) argued that, it is not true is Middle Eastern and Asian cultures. In these countries prolonged eye contact is considered as aggressive and rude in various conditions. Arnold and Boggs (2015) stated that women need to avoid eye contact all together due to lingering eye contact is viewed as the indication of sexual interest. High-context vs. low-context cultures Pekerti and Thomas (2015) mentioned that the concept of low and high context culture is related with how an employee feels, thinks, opines and upbringing can influence how he or she acts within given culture. For instance, Western Europe and North America are generally considered as low context cultures. It means people form these countries tend to take their decisions depending on facts only (Myers et al., 2014). It has been found that these types of people have issues related with trust. On the other hand, in high context cultures, trust is the most significant part of a business deal. Areas like Asia, Africa and Middle East can be considered as high context cultures. According to OSullivan and Carr (2017), companies having high context cultures are generally collectivists in nature. They mainly focus on interpersonal relationships. It has been analyzed that individuals form high end cultures are interested to know the individual with whom they are conducting business. Harzing and Pudelko (2014) mentioned that these types of individuals are more concerned about group performance and success of a team rather than individual performances. Power distance Myers et al. (2014) stated that power distance is how power is distributed within a company. For example, American organizations believe in low power distance. They have more informal hierarchies that can allow better interaction among executives and their subordinates. Asante et al. (2013) stated that, in these organizations managers ask for feedback from employees. It has been found that companies with high power distance are typically very hierarchical in nature. Companies of Asian countries like India and Pakistan believe in high power distance. Baxter and Norwood (2015) mentioned that, in these countries, subordinates expected to have answer of all their queries from their higher authority. While these two types of organizations working collaboratively, the higher management has to take care of the power distance issues. Direct and indirect communication Some of the conflicts in multinational companies are rooted in different communication style. Ihator (2015) stated that analyzing the difference between direct and indirect has been found important to survive in multinational organizations. According to Berwick and Chomsky (2015), people who use direct communication style are not aware of the expectation for communication. They are often not able to realize their style can be viewed as abrasive and even threatening to others. Indirect communication style Harzing and Pudelko (2014) mentioned that indirectness is basic element of human communication. Every person uses indirect communication style in specific conditions. In this communication strategy people has to understand that meaning of others beyond words they use (Bochner, 2013). Indirectness is the element that can vary the most of the time from one culture to another. OSullivan and Carr (2017) mentioned that understanding the differences between indirect and direct communication can enhance the organizational performances as well. These differences are mentioned below: The difference between indirect and indirect communication Neuliep (2014) mentioned that people who use direct communication have the tendency to say what they think. They primarily use their words to convey their messages. Overall purpose of direct communication is getting or providing information. Ihator (2015) mentioned that this type of communication is common in low context cultures such as American culture and Australian culture. People belong these cultures have the tendency to emphasize on individualism, self-reliance and independent. For this reason, they do not have the capability to know the context in which communication takes place. Lane (2016) mentioned that in the direct communication approach speakers are only responsible for appropriate communication. On the other hand, it has been found that indirect communication is commonly found in high-context cultures. In this style of communication, words are not only the medium to represent the point of view. Different no-verbal communication strategies such as tone of voice, body languages, silence and pauses can be used to depict the actual meaning in an indirect communication strategy. Brannen et al. (2014) opined that the overriding aim of indirect communication is to maintain harmony and saving face. It has been found that people who use indirect communication have the tendency to avoid tension, conflict and uncomfortable conditions. In high context culture, people are relatively tended to emphasize on interdependence and social relationships. Hybels (2014) argued that in countries like United States criticism related with indirect communication very common. Most of the American believes that direct communication strategy is logical and related with power. They believe that indirectness is the reflection of subservience and dishonesty (Ihator, 2015). They consider indirect communication is the sign of dishonesty. On the other hand people belong to high context culture perceive indirect direct communication as aggressive and rude. Direct communication can lead to damaged reputation, interpersonal tension, poor performance and other problems. Dragojevic and Giles (2014) mentioned that direct communicators are not able understand how indirect communication system works and they also dont understand what they are missing. In this context, Lane (2016) mentioned that is almost virtually impossible for direct communicators to understand the complexity of indirect communication until they immersed in it. Brannen et al. (2014) stat ed that direct communicators have the often miss the subtitles and nuances. For instance, they are not able to understand how criticism can be expressed. Suggestion for direct and indirect communicators Dragojevic and Giles (2014) had pointed out that mutual respect and flexibility are the key to deal with the differences of communication styles. Hybels (2014) provided some specific suggestions for the direct communicators while communicating with indirect communicators. They are such as: Direct communicators have to avoid using blunt comments while developing an interaction. They have to understand that avoiding direct insult is more important than providing honest feedback. They have to pay attention to non-verbal behaviors. Especially, they need to understand the discrepancy of words and nonverbal behaviors. Direct communicators have to use non-leading and more open ended questions to develop proper interaction with indirect communicators. Direct communicators have to realize that their subtle messages are not perceived in way that they have expected Action plan After analyzing my communicational issues related with cross-cultural communication and direct and indirect communication, I have develop two action plans in order to solve these issues. I have developed a time limit of 6 months in order to solve my communicational issues and developed action plan accordingly. They are discussed in the form of SMART objectives. They are motioned below: Improving my cross cultural communication skills Factors Analysis S- Specific It required to remove the problems associated with cross cultural communication while developing interaction with others. In order to enhance my cross cultural communication, I have attended different language courses. I also need to attain communicational and behavioral trainings. Before communicating with people coming from different background, I have to think before telling anything to them. I have to respect them and continue to learn from my personal experiences. I have to read books, newspapers and journal articles from of different languages in order to gain adequate knowledge about their way of thinking, values and beliefs. M- Measurable Improvement of my communication style can be measured easily with the help of my individual performance and team performance. If I am able to improve my cross cultural communication skills then I will be able to develop effective interaction within my team. It will in term improve my individual performance and as well as organizational performance. A- Achievable This self improvement goal can be achieved if I paid proper attention to it. I need to apply my listening and observation skill so that cross cultural barriers can be decreased. R- Relevant As, I had already face cultural barriers during the face-to-face interview with Japanese manager and while interacting with team members coming from different cultural backgrounds, it can be mentioned that cross-cultural communication is a relevant issue and I need to improve that. T- Timely Within the next six months, I think I would be able to improve my cross-cultural communication skills by attaining communicational and behavioral trainings. For instance, I will take two language courses like Japanese and Spanish for the first four months. Then I will take a short behavioral training for one month. In the last month, I will implement the lesson learned from these trainings in real life situation to measure whether my cross-cultural communication skills are improved or not. My mentor will help me in this case scenario. Action Plan Table Activities Time required I will take two language courses to learn Japanese and Spanish. 4 months I will undertake advanced postgraduate communication course at CQU. 1 month I will implement the lesson learned from these trainings in real life situation to measure whether my cross-cultural communication skills are improved or not. My mentor will help me to make corrections. 1 month Improving my gesture and behavioral skills Factors Analysis S- Specific I have come to understand that dignity and mutual respect and dignity are the two most important things while communicating with others. Hence, I have decided some specific objectives for myself: I have to understand that avoiding direct insult is more important than providing honest feedback. I have to pay attention to non-verbal behaviors. Especially, they need to understand the discrepancy of words and nonverbal behaviors. I have to use non-leading and more open ended questions to develop proper interaction with indirect communicators. I have to realize that their subtle messages are not perceived in way that they have expected M- Measurable If I am able to survive in an multinational organization of Japan or in Asian region, then I will think that my behavioral skills are improved A- Achievable With the help of appropriate observation skills, I will be able to achieve this target. R- Relevant As indirect communication, skill is highly dependent on body gestures and behavior, this goal is highly relevant. T- Timely This goal can be achieved within the next 6 months if I implement my observation skills to improve my body gesture and behavior towards other. For the first 3 months, I will observe other leaders or managers how they behave and make gestures to interact with people from different cultures and take notes. In the next two months, I will read books and journals related with behavioral skills like Dialectical Behavior Therapy Workbook and Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy Skills Workbook. Finally, in the last month, I will try to implement all my gathered knowledge about behavioral skills and body gestures in my work. Hence, I think 6 months is sufficient time for this plan. Action Plan Table Activities Time required I will observe other leaders or managers how they behave and make gestures to interact with people from different cultures and take notes. 3 months I will read books and journals related with behavioral skills like Dialectical Behavior Therapy Workbook and Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy Skills Workbook. 2 months I will try to implement all my gathered knowledge about behavioral skills and body gestures in my work. 1 month Conclusion I have analyzed my communication skills with the help of 5 major diagnostic tools. From these tests, I have analyzed that I have two major communicational issues like direct and indirect communication and cross-cultural communication. I have provided two interaction cases, in which I had to face these issues. I have reviewed all the relevant literatures related with these communication issues. In addition, I have developed an appropriate development plan to improve my communication skills. References Amati, R., Hannawa, A. F. (2014). Relational dialectics theory: Disentangling physician-perceived tensions of end-of-life communication.Health communication,29(10), 962-973. Arnold, E. C., Boggs, K. U. (2015).Interpersonal relationships: Professional communication skills for nurses. Elsevier Health Sciences. Asante, M. K., Miike, Y., Yin, J. (2013).The global intercultural communication reader. Routledge. Baxter, L. A., Norwood, K. M. (2015).Relational dialectics theory. John Wiley Sons, Inc.. Berwick, R. C., Chomsky, N. (2015).Why only us: Language and evolution. MIT press. Bochner, S. (Ed.). (2013).Cultures in contact: Studies in cross-cultural interaction(Vol. 1). Elsevier. Brannen, M. Y., Piekkari, R., Tietze, S. (2014). The multifaceted role of language in international business: Unpacking the forms, functions and features of a critical challenge to MNC theory and performance.Journal of International Business Studies,45(5), 495-507. Danziger, K. (2013).Interpersonal Communication: Pergamon General Psychology Series(Vol. 53). Elsevier. Dragojevic, M., Giles, H. (2014). Language and interpersonal communication: Their intergroup dynamics.Handbook of interpersonal communication, 29-51. Harzing, A. W., Pudelko, M. (2014). Hablas vielleicht un peu la mia language? A comprehensive overview of the role of language differences in headquarterssubsidiary communication.The International Journal of Human Resource Management,25(5), 696-717. Hybels, S. (2014).Communicating effectively. McGraw-Hill Higher Education. Ihator, A. S. (2015). Communication style in the information age.Corporate Communications: An International Journal,6(4), 199-204. Lane, S. D. (2016).Interpersonal communication: Competence and contexts. Routledge. Myers, S. A., Goodboy, A. K., Members. (2014). College student learning, motivation, and satisfaction as a function of effective instructor communication behaviors.Southern Communication Journal,79(1), 14-26. Neuliep, J. W. (2014).Intercultural communication: A contextual approach. Sage Publications. OSullivan, P. B., Carr, C. T. (2017). Masspersonal communication: A model bridging the mass-interpersonal divide.New Media Society, 1461444816686104. Pekerti, A. A., Thomas, D. C. (2015). The role of self-concept in cross-cultural communication.International Journal of Cross Cultural Management,15(2), 167-193.

Tuesday, April 21, 2020

Sex Marriage Personal Opinion

The problems of sex and marriage, sex before and after marriage, and the role of sex in marriage are considered to be one of the most burning ones in different spheres of life. Lots of people prefer to talk about it just in order to solve own problems and share own experience. Advertising We will write a custom essay sample on Sex Marriage: Personal Opinion specifically for you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Some people like to investigate these issues and find out the ways to make their marriages better and stronger. If sex is something that turns out to be crucially important, it is necessary to talk about it and present various ideas to choose the best one. Can it be that sex is obsolete? What causes these conditions? Why people like to have sex and why they try to find out a reason not to have it sometimes? To these very questions, there are so many answers. Each person has his/her own point of view, and right now, I want to share my ideas as f or the role of sex in marriage and the reasons of why sex may be obsolete. Firs of all, it is a bit wrong to apprehend sex as a kind of barometer of relationships between a husband and a wife. To my mind, sex will be always something that unites a woman and a man, helps to develop their relations, provides them with a chance to learn each other better, and comprehend each other’s desires with time. This is why the role of sex in marriage is significant indeed. When two people feel something that is hard to control, want to be as close as possible, and cannot wait a minute without kissing each other, this condition is called passion. Passion and sex are the things, which cannot be apart. Only when passion appears, sex turns out to be true and interesting for both people. Marriage should not be a kind of barrier that decreases the role of sex; it is better to accept marriage as another opportunity to experiment and use all imagination to satisfy a partner and get the desired satisfaction. When people are married, they may forget about possible uneasiness and allow themselves doing various things. Of course, some people spend too much energy to create strong and long-time relations: they spend much time at work in order to earn more money for a family, they bring up children and forget about the ways of how these children have been made; and they think a lot about how to create good reputation among other families. Advertising Looking for essay on education? Let's see if we can help you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Without any doubts, these issues are really important for any family; however, it is better to achieve positive outcomes not at expense of sex. Both men and women confess that they have obsolete sex; they consider sex as one more necessity for their fleshly bodies, but nothing more. To my mind, such attitude to sex kills all romance and desire to live together. People should not forget about sex as a wonderful me ans to find out the desired satisfaction, at least, for a couple of years. However, when I remember a couple of old man and woman, who observe a sunset, holding each other hands, I cannot but admire their devotion to each other, their attraction to each other, and their desire to spend one more minute, enjoying this sunset. I do believe that obsolete sex and certain duties are not about them, as they have already found a good way to unite all the necessary issues to create a strong family and not to forget about sex. This is why they enjoy this life as no one else. The role of sex in marriage is very important: without proper sex, a couple cannot comprehend each other and enjoy each change in this life. In order to have a good family and live a happy life, it is better to think for several times about how to achieve positive results, and then take certain steps, considering sex as a significant means to make relations stronger. This essay on Sex Marriage: Personal Opinion was written and submitted by user Dexter Hewitt to help you with your own studies. You are free to use it for research and reference purposes in order to write your own paper; however, you must cite it accordingly. You can donate your paper here.

Monday, March 16, 2020

The Irony in Tell the Truth But Tell it Slant by Emily Dickenson.

The Irony in Tell the Truth But Tell it Slant by Emily Dickenson. The irony cannot be missed in Emily Dickenson's poem "Tell the Truth But Tell it Slant". This poem is read like a church hymn, advising the reader to not exactly tell the blunt truth if asked. Thus, in the cadence of very familiar moving religious tunes, Dickinson implores one to tell the truth, but to give it an angle that makes it more palatable to the listener. Dickinson either wished to dramatically touch the spiritual side of the individual as he read the poem, or she was totally irreverent concerning religion. Either interpretation serves to get the message across. Dickinson believes that most individuals do not possess the ability to handle truth with grace. Truth hurts. An example in its simplest form could be described as follows. An individual wishing to tell a significant other "I am sick of you! I do NOT want to date you anymore!" will find the message accepted more readily, and handled with more dignity if, in the telling, the truth is couched in a little white lie.Angie Dickinson"I don't deserve a wonderful person like you; I could not ever be good enough for you, and since you ought to have someone much better than me; I am going to step out of your life and allow you to find someone more worthy of your wonderful qualities." The truth, put into a sugar coated "line," is less emotionally damaging and the receiver of the bad news will possibly remain more composed and self confident than hearing the truth. Therefore, the truth, bent, is less harsh to the listener. Truth is personified, giving it a life of its own in Dickinson's poem. The irony of a hymn-like poem suggesting the "darker edge of truth" gives an eerie quality to the very honesty...

Friday, February 28, 2020

Israel Settlements and the Issue of Palestinian Restitution Essay

Israel Settlements and the Issue of Palestinian Restitution - Essay Example The rest of the area would have been linked to Transjordan but for smaller part that would have stayed under the control of the British. One of these parts would have been the city of Jerusalem. Another tenet of the recommendation called for removal of the entire Arab population in the Jewish area. This removal would be forcible if it had come to that. Looking ahead to forging a larger area of out this small offering, the Zionist leaders okayed the proposed state, while the Arabs immediately rejected it. Although two other plans for partition were take into consideration, eventually it all came to naught. Perhaps nothing involved in the Israeli/Palestinian conflict is so controversial and difficult to achieve consensus on as restitution of land to the Palestinians. The question of Palestinian land restitution goes back to the moment it was decided to establish a Jewish state in Israel. That decision was in turn prompted by World War II. This claim to land has been made by the Palestinian Authority in the name of all those who were displaced from their homeland amidst the settlement of the nation of Israel in 1948 and the resulting wars that have marked the area ever since. Following WWI, even more Jews moved to Palestine and the rise of Hitler and his persecution policy upped the ante even more. Hitler alone cannot bear the full brunt of the problem, however. Many point to the restrictive British immigration policy has playing a major role in the development of the current day problem. In addition, one aspect of that policy was also found to be thoroughly unacceptable by the Arabs, t hat of partitioning. The immigration issue was further highlighted by when the World Zionist Congress demanded that one million Jews be admitted to Palestine after WWII. Obviously, this shook the Arab country to their very core. The formation of the Arab League of Egypt, Syria, Lebanon, Iraq, Saudi Arabia, Yemen and Jordan was overseen by Great Britain with a benevolent eye. It was the hope of England and other European countries that pan-Arabism could lead to a coordinated policy that would have a settling effect on the region. In February of 1947, the British took the problem of Palestine to the UN, resulting in the UN Special Committee on Palestine (UNSCOP). The result was exactly what was feared: recommendation of a country partitioned between Jews and Palestinians (Kimberling & Medal 146). The response of Great Britain was to swiftly get out of the region before it jeopardized its position among the Arab nations or got caught up in turmoil that was clearly on the horizon. That turmoil was expressed through acts of terrorism from both Israelis and Palestinians. Finally, Great Britain did withdraw, on the very day that Israel achieved its independence, May 14, 1948. The newly independent nation of Israel was recognized by the United States sixteen minutes after its foundation, and then quickly afterward by the USSR. Almost immediately, Israel was set upon by Egyptian armies. Meanwhile, Jordan and Iraq forces supported Palestinian Arabs in the territory in their calls for land reclamation. During this Israeli battle to retain its independence, on December 11, 1948, the United Nations addressed the refugee issue in Resolution 194, stating that "refugees wishing to return to their homes and live at peace with their